Friday, April 24, 2009

Mandating the Integration of Technology

Do higher institutes of learning mandate the use of technology for instruction and learning?

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Transformative Learning

I found the Journal of Transformative Education and Jack Mezirow's theory of transformational learning fascinating. I have learned a great deal about collaboration from exploring the writings of Mezirow (Dirkx & Mezirow, 2006; Mezirow, 2003, 2004) on critical reflection and transformational learning in the Journal of Transformative Education. Here are a few of my favorites:

Dirkx, J. M., & Mezirow, J. (2006, April). Musings and reflections on the meaning, context, and process of transformative learning: A dialogue between John M. Dirkx and Jack Mezirow. Journal of Transformative Education, 4(2), 123-139. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from EBSCOhost database.

Mezirow, J. (2004, November). The role of cognitive development in Mezirow's transformational learning theory. Adult Education Quarterly, 55(1), 69-70. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from EBSCOhost database.

Mezirow, J. (2003, January). Transformative learning as discourse. Journal of Transformative Education, 1, 58 - 63. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Sage Publications

Critical Thinking and Transformative Learning

Critical reflections and peer feedback are not easy to write. However, it may be worthwhile to encourage learners to try them out and see how it feels. I agree with Pamela; "If learners were more used to using it, though, what a valuable change that would be!" Critical reflection may be hard, but worth the effort (Hughes, 2008). Hughes (2008) conducted a doctoral study on the use of reflection in research. According to Hughes (2008), “Reflection is a deep personal activity that enables us to see familiar ideas through different lenses, reassess our existing knowledge and make sense of particular experiences” (Hughes, 2008, p. 214). Critical reflection provides learners with the opportunity to combine cognitive and affective domains (Hughes, 2008). Hughes (2008) suggested that reflection facilitates learning and the research process for the researcher and participant. I highly recommend using it for evaluating informal and formal learning.

Hughes, Hilary E. (2008). Incidents for reflection in research. In 5th International Lifelong Learning Conference, 16-19 June 2008, Yeppoon, Queensland. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from


Thank you for the welcome. It's great to be back in SCoPE.

My name is Nellie Deutsch. I am a self-paced learner/teacher that has always managed to escape the confines of formal education for flexible learning. After 3 years of ongoing doctoral classes in education, leadership, curriculum, instruction, and evaluations of mostly the American educational system, I would like to summarize it all by saying one word "Help".

I am interested in quality learning and look forward to great discussions.

Warm wishes,
Nellie Deutsch
(April 20, 2009)

I am beginning to get the feeling that evaluating formal and informal learning will ultimately be the same. Learners may be enrolled in formal learning environments but learn informally. I would be interested in measuring the impact of informal learning in formal learning environments. Can formal learning exist without informal learning?

However, before we begin to evaluate anything, shouldn't we know what we are evaluating? So what is informal learning and how is it connected to formal education? Well, according to Cross (n.d.), "Informal learning is learning without borders. Organizations improve it by removing obstacles, seeding communities, increasing bandwidth, encouraging conversation, and growing networks. It’s a natural way to learn and grow".


I doubt that formal learning can exist without informal learning. Perhaps informal learning is a bit like the white space around typed words on a page: the space has power because of it ability to shape our interpretation of and response to those very words.

However, some informal learning is incidental (or accidental) learner vs. purposeful, informal learning. As informal learning gets looped up into formal learning, the purposeful learner is going to show that additional learning in his/her work, but it's not going to be easy to measure. I'm also not sure that we should measure informal learning in any formal manner--but I'm willing to be persuaded otherwise.

Please look at my next comment as "electronic thinking aloud." Many learners don't actually know how they learn and yet that knowledge is powerful and valuable information. Some learners will take to journal writing and critical reflection like a duck to water....and others will only come to value this learning after being introduced to it --"taught" how to do it, if you will. Perhaps, in addition to the items you mention in your closing comment, informal learning needs to include techniques for making use of informal learning.

Cheers, Chris

Hi Chris,

You said: I'm also not sure that we should measure informal learning in any formal manner--but I'm willing to be persuaded otherwise.

Many stakeholders such as Ministries of Education, teacher's training colleges, career specialists, teachers, curriculum and instructional designers/specialists, program evaluators, school administrators, parents, and students may be interested in knowing how much learning is going on as a result of classwork (formal) and how much outside the classroom (informal) for the purpose of improving instruction and perhaps decreasing the number of teaching hours in one subject and increasing the hours in another. For example, I teach English as foreign language (EFL). Most of my students learn English incidentally or accidentally via TV, the internet, from family members, friends, and from listening to music. It just so happens, there is a shortage of English teachers right now. Having less hours would resolve the problem of recruiting faculty for specific subjects such as EFL and placing more emphasis on others like Mathematics that cannot be acquired informally.

Perhaps we can list a few formal ways of evaluating learning and see whether any of them can apply to informal learning.


I've been giving some considerable thought to what informal learning looks like....and there are, of course, several types.....but "what does it look like in post-secondary courses?" is what's rattling around in my mind right now.

So, again, hiding behind "electronic thinking aloud"....I'm wondering if evaluating informal learning is a task best left to the learner and that if there has to be a formal evaluation why not a learning contract where the learner contracts for a grade based on meeting several goals (which are determined by the learner).

Now, right away, I can start arguing the other side of this item...learning contracts aren't well received in all post-sec institutions, in some schools, by some faculty and administrators....and then there's the learning (formal or otherwise) that's required by faculty and learner to make the best use of a learning contract....still, I wonder if it's something worth exploring.


I would also like to come up with an evaluation plan for self-evaluations and peer feedback. How about compiling a list of criterion?

You may find Evaluating informal learning in a virtual context by Giustina IADECOLA Nicolò and Antonio PIAVE of interesting to read.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Learning with Technology

Survey says students don't think their schools' tech is current

Learning with technology is great at the comfort of your home where you pay the bills according to your needs and means. Most governments will not provide the funds necessary for the maintenance and upgrade of the equipment and infrastructure at school. It's just too expensive. I suggest students, who cannot afford technology, receive help from the government so they can enjoy the privilege of learning at home or library with teacher facilitation and support. I believe online teamwork at a distance at the comfort of one's home, library, or elsewhere may help students focus better on their studies than face-to-face teamwork at school.